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Health and Social Care is an expression that entails the integrated services that are offered from health and social care providers. This sector covers a variety of services within a range of organization in the private, voluntary and public sectors. They include care homes, ambulance transportation, hospitals, dental practices and hospices. To provide efficient health service delivery, focus should be based  on the health services management, non-state providers, quality improvements and vital drugs management. It is evident that in both developing and developed countries poor people experience shorter life spans and ill health than the richer citizens. The health of the peopleis subjected to the lifestyle and socio-economic factors but affordable and high quality public health services and healthcare has vital role in their health status. Several countries are therefore struggling to deal with the inconsistent and poor quality and inaccessibility of well-timed care. In order to improve service delivery to the poor every stakeholder in the health system should be involved. It involves the communities, health service workers and managers, private and public providers, and the policymakers in public administration, finance andhealth ministries (Stretch, Lavers & Moonie,p.115).

Changing disease burden, increase in the expectations of the public and patients and demographic situation have made healthcare services to struggle in order to keep pace. Services highly depend on the looming levels of technology, expensive inputs in profession and the individual expertise. Improved levels of technology have actually changed the manner in which the service providers relate to their patients. Recent policies changes will involve NHS organizations support to become more innovative and have reputable practices, changing the old care models, coming up with a culture that has peer support of innovations and learning, local players support in testing new care models and new provider’s recognition. Therefore the government is mainly geared to offer systems in the social care that will give care and assist in maintaining the dignity and independence of the people. The government may implement changes that are aimed at caring service providers and patient while respecting their compassion, value and self-esteem. In this regard the government is aiming at making changes that first yield respect service users and patients. A second change is to ensure team work in delivering health and social care services. The government requires theservice providers to work hand in hand to ensure that people get the correct care combinations. Thirdly the government is aiming atimproving the quality of life to those individuals with long term problems in health such as those suffering asthma, heart diseases and diabetes. Lastly the government is aimed at ensuring carers are in good health through providing, support and advice and information (Johnson, & Souza,p.3).

Non-discriminatory care service delivery policies require that referrals of the patients, their admission and provision of services be made without regard to colour, ancestry, race, handicap, national origin, religious creed, age and sex. The most economical and feasible methods should be used to provide services to the handicapped which may include provision of aid and equipment redesign. Non-discriminatory practices include valuing all people where they show a sense of value to the patients. The heath professionals are supposed to be skilled in understanding and conveying information. These practices also include valuing and understanding diversity and rights of the patients. These professionals should show that they value diversity through showing close interest to the client’s culture, avoiding language which devalues others and through remembering personal details. Lastly itinvolves valuation of individuality where the heath professional respect the dignity of peopleand know that the power to manage their lives and environment decreases. This makes the professionals to increase their responsibilities so as to protect and promote the rights of the less able. The policy and legislative changes impact these non-discriminatory practices by ensuring the responsibilities make the society become economically and culturally diverse through gender equality (Linsley, Kane& Owen 2011; p.123). These changes require that care must be given through informed and at free consent, respect privacy and protection of confidentiality. Professionals do not impose a dominant culture on people who are different and that they monitor how to express respect in working with the diverse populations.

It leads to responsible caring. This principle requires professionals to show a great concern to the communities’welfare, groups and individuals with whom they interact. They actually take care ofdifferent people and ensure that they have equal access to services and psychological knowledge benefits. These policies ensure that non- discriminatory practices lead to integrity in relationships which ensures that health professionals are open, straightforward and precise in their activities. They are able to manage conflict situations that may occur between their interests and those of their clients from different populations. Integrity in relationships is shown when professionals attend to people who are devalued in the society as these policies ensure that non-discriminatory services to all.

Non-discriminatory careservices ensure that the patients are less depressed, valued, and are not stressed. The patients feel depressed and less valued when faced with discrimination that destroys the relationship between the patient and the caregiver. Policies change in favour of non discriminatory care service delivery ensures that the clients have less emotional and physical injury. Clients and patients in health care units sufferboth physically and emotionally when they sense some form of discrimination towards them. On the clients side they may become less productive and offer services unwillingly and without desire. On the other hand the patients in the health units where discriminatory service deliveries may become weaker and suffer emotionally.Non-discriminatory service delivery ensures that the patients to be attended are not bullied. Research shows that bulling in workplaces is widespread. Policy and legislative changes enacted ensure non-discriminatory service delivered without abusing, shouting, insulting, sudden demotion and ignoring the views of the victims. All patients are given equal attention irrespective of their colour, race, gender, sex and age.

Reduced Patient Harassments

Harassment refers to repetitive acts of behaviour intended to position another person in unfavourable or negative ways. Actions that may make another person to sense that he/she is put down, obstructions and malicious rumours are forms of harassment. Recent policy changes ensure that patients are not subjected to any forms of harassment.

Anti-Oppressive Practice Social and Health Care help to design practices which are anti-oppressive within the heath and social care surroundings including a various service users. Some the anti-oppressive practices include promoting critical analysis, connecting public and personal issues and understanding the nature of the society.  Policy changes have ensured that anti-oppressive practices have resulted into the support of heath professionals in their social work by diverse communities, groups and individuals. It has led torevealing that social and power resources are not equally distributed which has in turn resulted into dominance and oppression in institutional and personal relationships. In a person centred system, the rights of people with disability, and their families and carers to make choices about their own lives are respected. A person with disability, their families and carers are heard and supported to exercise choice and to direct supports and service arrangements.

A person centred approach is one where the person with disability is placed in the centre of the decision making in delivering services and support. A person- centred practice is carried out during the care delivery where the patients are treated as they want. In this type of practice the disabled and their families are respected. Some of the recent healthcare policies require that patients are fully supported together with their families and carers when they are in problems so as to pursue their goals. Policies may also extend to include transparent and proper assessments based on the level of the individualneeds and that these assessments should be person centred. Reports show that several hospitals and care homes do not offer patient-centred approach to people with disabilities in learning. These policies therefore provide a lot of information to help healthcare units to provide best outcomes to people with disabilities in learning. The policies also ensure that these people are included in making the decisions that involve their care (Freeth, p.11).

Social and medical models are the two most mentioned models of disability. The medical disability model is a model that describes disability as an issue associated to the disabled people. It tries to show that disabilities are problems that are only concerned with the disabled and should wholly bear them. A social disability model on the other hand is a model which contains beliefs that the society is the one that disables people by designing everything that people who are not disabled require. The treatment of disabled people in the UK can be divided into distinct phases:the social model of disability and the medical model. Equality search has brought about the propositioning of various frameworks of policies which are geared at attaining equal opportunities. The search for equality has dominated the policies in the UK way back from 1970’s which has resulted into Race Relations Act 1975, Equal Pay Act 1970 and Sex Discrimination Act 1975 legislations. Results reveal that equal outcomes can not be obtained from equal treatment, people still remain discriminated. These policies have created changes to people with various needs and that equal opportunities only focused on groups and not the individuals.The legislation acts haveprovided the right of access to services for disabled people. This has ensured that the local authorities provide and assess property adaptations, compassionate parking rules for the disabled and the provision of practical assistance in their homes. More recent legislative acts have protected the people with disabilities from indirect discrimination. Service providers thus are required to improve the service delivery for the disabled patients or clients. The disabled through the policy and legislative changes have been able to getimprovements of their working conditions and building structures so as to provide access to information forthem. Finally these changes have resulted into protection against harassment to the disabled people.The values underpinning person-centred approach include choice of cooperation and control, rights and independence and competent and inclusive communities (Sanderson, p.24). 

Choice, control and co-production: the control and choice of the older people is very vital because they are immobilized. Although others can control their lives they do not have a straight manner on what they say, behave and spend their time. Person-centred approaches are designed to change controls to face the older disabled people in order to readdress this balance. This power shift is also seen in co-production which refers to a process of delivering services to the public a reciprocal and equal relationship between their neighbours, people in use of services, families and professionals. It starts withrespecting and appreciating people’s skills, capacities and gifts. Person-centred approach and co-production originate from the point that individuals are assets who are vital and equal in delivering services, support, recovery and treatment. It will be realized that person-centred approach is based on the person’s positive aspects in life such as the interests, passions and strengths that yield a good beginning point of co-productive relationship. Components of co-production may include blurring distinctions, mutuality and reciprocity, recognition of people’s asset among others. In relation to health care services co-production is shown by thinking on expert patient models and patient engagement. Co-production, control and choice rely on partnerships between individuals who depend on support and care services provided by people who work together as a team hence they fall on the space of person-centred practices.

Independence and Rights

Independence and rights: independence revolves about the disabled people who may include the older people who are disabled and have similar choices, freedom and control in their day to day lives. It clearly means that people should actually have control and choice over the type of assistance they require in their daily lives and have equal access to transport employment, education, training opportunities, housing and health. National policy currently requires that everybody should have equipment and assistance of some form. Additional assistance needs should be provided to people with old age who have learning disabilities, sensory and physical impairments and mental problems. The older people who are disabled are taken to various services based on their impairment categories. Everyone is allowed to express his/her choice and preference regardless of the impairment level. Person-centred approach aims at answering how one wants to live his/her life and assumes that as long as people with disabilities are supported they are all set to do what they desire.

Competent and inclusive communities: diverse communities create various opportunities for individuals to assist each other more directly. The use of person-centred approach causes bias towards the dynamical building communities.  In order for people to create and maintain good connections with others who don’t help them then person-centred practices helps to create this. In case when there is a substance misuse and mental health problems individuals may have friends, partners and families that are enduring to assist them to address the problem of the misuse of the substances.

Person-centred practices are very important because the heath professional get to know the client or the patient better and is able to provide more care pertaining to their needs. It helps in promoting more client and patient responsibilities and they are willing to engage in decisions concerning treatment. In general person centred approach helps in knowing the patient as a person. This helps in creating strong relationships between the health professionals and the carers, clients or patients. Person-centred approach is flexible and accessible. In this case the health professionals are sensitive the patient’s needs, preferences and values. The patients are given accurate, complete and timely information where they are able to make choices on their health care services. It assistsin helping the health professionals in sharing responsibilities and power where they respect the preferences of the patients and clients. The patients are thus treated as partners when making decisions, setting goals and planning for the health care services. Person-centred approach also helps in understanding the working environment which involves both the cultural and physical organization. It providesan environment that is enabling and one which is also person centred during execution of the jobs by professionals. Lastly, person-centred approach promotes integration and coordination. This is connected with teamwork where all groups in the healthcare units work together to provide better and reliable services to the clients and the patients while minimizing duplication. In addition service providers are also involved and the working systems so as to maximize the outcomes of the patients.


Recent policy and legislation changes concerning health and social care have greatly raised the quality of lives of the patients and clients. Non-oppressive and person centered practices are  more skewed to the patients life which by a greater margin improve their lives. This makes the patients to be attended well and in good time with no delays to service delivery and provided with good services which in turn helps in improving the lives of the patients. Team work within the health professionals brought about by these changes helps in reducing the length of the queuing lines in the heath care units. Service delivery becomes efficient and reliable. This ensures that the patient-care giver relationship improves as the services are rendered without delays. Teamwork also encourages strong interrelationships within the health professionals as they can consult each other if need be. Policy changes helps to improve the non-discriminatory service deliveries where services are offered irrespective of the sex, color, origin and age of the patients and clients. This adds value to the society and they feel highly esteemed by the health professionals as they are attended without any kind of harassments. Legislative changes on the medical and social models help in improving the lives of the people with disabilities. They are given rights to access of information and property. Government’s Acts help in reducing discrimination and harassments to the older disabled people. Therefore future policy and legislative changes are required to further improve the service delivery in the heath and social care.

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