A well-known case of such a domain is the 19th century British colony Empire. An example of the imperialism is the Communism. Imperialism comes from a Latin word imperare which simply means to command. History shows that the word started to be used in the 16th century and had by then been derived from imperium, a Roman concept. Imperialism can be defined in three ways as discussed below where each definition refers to some domain or type of imperialism. First, imperialism can be defined as the aggressive extension of authority. Still, it refers to any economic or political expansion. In the modern era, this kind of imperialism exists in the corporate world. It is exhibited in cases when companies control or monopolize the market where they sell their products. They become imperialists through increasing promotions designing the very best products or reducing prices.
Imperialism can also be defined as the expansion in the political rule over foreign countries (Tomlinson, 1991). This kind of definition simply refers to the domination, conquest and annexation by a single nation over several nations or even one nation. This definition is used to refer to the activities of the colonists and expansionists after the discovery trade routes to the American continent, Africa and Asia which were carried by the European nations. In ancient times, imperialism was seen in the Roman Empire, Genghis Khan Golden Horde and the Chinese Empire. The age of imperialism began in the 18th century in the European nations. At this period of time, these nations were more advanced than the rest of the world, and they started to enslave America, Asia and Africa continents. Lastly, imperialism can be defined as the promotion of religious beliefs or faith. This was clearly illustrated during the cold war between Russia and the United States where they promoted communism and democracy. A case example in the modern era is the natural resource imperialism for products such as oil where the sources are exploited. The effects of European imperialism will be discussed in three countries, which are Kenya, Brazil and India.
In Kenya, imperialism led to loss of independence, and it was subjected to the British rule and administration (Page & Sonnenburg, 2003). This had resulted in the use of the British style of leadership in Kenya and even the use of the English language. The British constitution did not work for Kenya, thus they had to reform it. The British colony established indirect rule, and the Kenyans were regarded as an inferior group and provided labor in the European plantations. Kenya was defined by the newly drawn boundaries, which helped in estimating its size and thus prevented boundary conflicts. It led to grabbling of land, which caused increased landlessness in Kenya. Imperialism led to the abolishment of the slave trade that by then saved the Kenyan population. People now started working on their farms, and this positively affected the general output production in the country.
These infrastructures include bridges, railway lines, schools, roads and hospitals. These structures positively impacted Kenya because they have enhanced trade up umtil now, reduced the level of ignorance and improved health care. Exploitation of resources, such as copper and gold, made Kenya fall short of these resources. Innovative methods of farming and new cash crops were introduced, which promoted the level of agriculture. This positively affected Kenya because it should be noted that agriculture is the major component of its GDP, which mostly comes from exportation of these cash crops including coffee and tea. Imperialism led to the development of trade with the European colonies where they could also sell their products. This had grown by large magnitudes, and Kenya obtained most of its materials for the industries from European colonies. Promotion of the western culture had led to the improved religious traditions, eating habits, dressing and building designs. There were advancements in the building structures in Kenya, which are more permanent and offer more security than those before imperialism.
On the other hand, the Kenyan culture had been eroded more, especially in their dressing styles. The Kenyans, as a result, developed an inferiority complex as their traditional customs were reviled, and they imitated the European culture as their mode of life. It also introduced tax systems in Kenya. During the colonial period, the Kenyans were forced to pay gun and hut tax inform of money. This slowly helped to develop the tax system in Kenya, which is its main source of revenue. The western formal education introduced in Kenya has been helpful since a lot of Kenyans are now educated and can administer policies more effectively without any external assistance; as a result, labor productivity increased. This helped to replace the informal African education.
Brazil was colonized by the Portuguese (Olson, 1991). The effects of the Portuguese colony in today’s development of Brazil can be shown as discussed below. Brazil has many differences in economic opportunities, education, wealth and income, the roots of which can be traced from the Portuguese colony. The social arrangement in Brazil still reflects the colonial period. During this period, there was a large inequality in access to property and land, and the slaves provided the required labor. Labor productivity has decreased due to the disregard of education by the Latin Americans. There has been regional inequality in income distribution within the states. Income inequalities and opportunities are strongly related with ethnicity in Brazil; however, the slavery heritage has yielded a lesser amount of social tension.
Independence was achieved with no significant struggle with the Portuguese crown prince becoming the Emperor of Brazil in 1822. Slavery was ended without a civil war in 1888. The Empire became a democracy without a struggle in 1889. The Vargas dictatorship took over with relatively little violence. This has made transitions in Brazil easier. The amalgamation of the smooth political transitions, comparative ease of social relations linking ethnic groups and liberty from foreign conflicts enabled Brazil to incorporate a cosmopolitan mix of the descendants of African slaves, later, immigrants from Japan, Lebanon, Germany, Italy and the original Portuguese settlers.
Studies show that British imperialism in India had several positive and negative effects (Vess, 2006). As soon as the British colonized India, they built 70,000 mile roadway and 40,000 miles of railway lines. This made it possible to travel comfortably across India up until now. The British also increased the level of agriculture by use of large scale irrigation mechanism. Introduction of irrigation schemes has increased the size of land that has been reclaimed in India, which has in turn increased the agriculture output. Statistics show that, during the British colony, approximately 30 million acres became available for cultivation. This tried by larger magnitudes to combat famine in India because industrialization started to develop. The British colony built several institutions in India so as to setup a productive government. The wise laws framed during the colonial period have established courts of justice. In addition, Britain also linked India with the modern world through modern thought and science. This has greatly assisted India in becoming the world’s most developed economies.
The Indian form of government was highly affected and was given no responsibilities. Traditional form of industries in India also collapsed, and thus their form of technology was neglected. Before the British colony, India had diversified skilled workers in such fields as paper making, metal works, ship building and glass blowing which were purely affected by the colonialists as they were not given room to nurture their skills.