Cultural as well as social norms are highly influential in shaping behavior of individuals, including the use of violence. Some norms protect against violence, but they may also support and encourage the use of it. Domestic violence is not about the difference of cultures. Rather it is the manifestations in different cultural environments that are perceived differently (Ahmed, 2009).
Domestic violence comes in many forms, such as physical and sexual abuse, threats of violence as well as intimidation. It can also manifest itself in emotional and social abuse, and economic deprivation. Whether it is physical or psychological, domestic violence is destructive for both the battered and the batterer. It affects people of all socio-economic backgrounds such as race, age, sexual orientation, religion or gender as well as educational levels. In addition, its tendency can be passed down over generations (Cristian et al., 2012).
Culture which is a set of learned beliefs, traditions, principles as well as guides for behavior, are commonly shared among members of a certain society or nation. Each individual is a product of the culture of a society or nation in which he or she lives in. As a result, individual’s behavior can be influenced by ethnic, religious, geographic socio-economic and political cultures (Cristian et al., 2012). Moreover, culture and traditions provide strength of families and individuals and can affect their beliefs, values as well as how they deal with problems.
The institution conducted a traumatic analysis to quantify the severity of traumatic injury related to beating, sexual assaults among others in living persons. Further, the study revealed that domestic violence was prominent in elderly males. From the discussions held with victims of domestic violence in Romania, the main cause seemed to be drug abuse and alcohol consumption which increased aggressive acts of males against women (Vranda, 2013).
In Egypt, domestic violence is gender asymmetrical and adversely affects women because of the normative, legal and structural contexts related to gender and violence. For instance, the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) found that women justified domestic violence against women ( Yount, 2008). Culturally, their role and position in the society subjected them to justify domestic violence against women.
The survey further revealed that in Egypt’s cultural and social learning, children that are corporal punished or maltreated, observe and learn these behaviors from their parents. They may come to use such behaviors in adulthood. Therefore, a woman’s tendency to remain in a violent relationship may be learned by observing or experiencing corporal discipline or violence in childhood. In addition, women’s resourcesand constraints in marriage also determined their attitudes about domesticviolence against women (Vranda, 2013).
In Malaysia, a study data obtained from women’s aid organization (WAO) indicated that domestic violence is higher in older men than younger men. However, this violent behavior in older men is habit forming. As men age, they increase impunity since they perceive themselves more authoritative (Halimah Awang & Sharon Hariharan, 2011). In addition, income status of women as well as the number of children influenced incidences of domestic violence.
In India, a 1997 world health organization (WHO) report indicates that various personal, familial as well as socio-cultural factors influence women’s decision to remain in a relationship despite violent. The Indian culture, women are restricted to access and control financial resources which contributed to their dependency on their abusive husbands. In addition, some domestic violent acts were on account of dissatisfaction with dowry by the husband and in-laws (Vranda, 2013).